Chapter OverviewNetworks and Collaboration
The systems view of innovation brings into focus the importance of the networks connecting individuals and organisations. Knowledge can be highly specialised and fragmented, and some of the benefits of innovation flow from its transfer and diffusion. Various measures of collaboration can be used to indicate the system's connectedness. In general, market incentives are not conducive to the transfer and diffusion of knowledge. As such, there is a case for policy to help facilitate the flow of knowledge across different parts of the system to maximise the economic benefits of innovation.
Roughly one in five innovation-active firms in Australia collaborate for the purpose of innovation. Firms collaborate primarily with their customers and suppliers, or with other businesses owned by the same company. Collaboration between businesses and the public research sector is generally weak, and international collaboration is weaker still. Business funding of R&D in the higher education research sector is low. Of the modest number of firms undertaking joint R&D, large firms and firms in the Mining or Professional, Scientific and Technical Services industries are most active.
A recent project by the Department of Industry, Innovation and Science identified a number of obstacles to business-research collaboration including misaligned priorities, difficulty finding a collaboration partner, and a lack of skills and management capabilities. The OECD suggests there is a role for governments and publicly funded research organisations to bring together the right partners with the aim of tackling complex inter-disciplinary challenges. Experience across the OECD shows that investments are often essential in applied research centres, pilot production facilities and demonstration facilities, to take new discoveries from the laboratory to production.
 Turvey D (2018) Competition or collaboration: from which well does innovation spring?, Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Office of the Chief Economist speech
 Department of Industry, Innovation and Science (2017) Business Research Collaboration Discovery Report: User Centred Design, BizLab report
 OECD (2018) OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Outlook 2018: Adapting to Technological and Societal Disruption, OECD Publishing