Networks and Collaboration4.4 International Comparison
4.4.1 Share of Higher Education R&D (HERD) financed by Business Enterprise
Business funding of R&D performed by higher education institutions provides a measure of R&D collaboration between the business and research sectors. Businesses may also support higher education expenditure on R&D (HERD) indirectly by paying to use the R&D facilities of higher education institutions, buying R&D results, or investing in spin-off companies. Australia's performance on this metric is relatively subdued compared to other OECD economies with 5.1 per cent of higher education expenditure on R&D financed by the business sector in 2016, which is below the OECD average of 5.8 per cent. Australia's below-average performance on this metric is persistent over time. Over the past 15 years the share of HERD financed by the business sector has remained below the 7.0 per cent mark, peaking in 2006 at 6.8 per cent. Among OECD member countries, the share of HERD financed by business in 2016 was highest in Germany (13.8 per cent), south Korea (12.6 per cent) and Lithuania (12.2 per cent).
4.4.2 Firms collaborating on innovation activities as a percentage of product and/or process innovative firms
Australia's low rates of business collaboration turns up consistently across multiple available metrics. One common measure is the proportion of product and/or process innovative firms collaborating on innovation activities. On this measure, around 22.5 per cent of Australian firms with this description are estimated to have engaged in some form of collaboration when developing or introducing innovation in 2014-15. By itself, this estimate may not seem particularly low --- especially when compared with some of the other measures of collaboration --- and it is certainly not the lowest result across the OECD countries. However, it is still considerably less than the latest available OECD average for this metric of 35.0 per cent.
4.4.3 Firms collaborating on innovation with higher education or government institutions as a percentage of product and/or process innovative firms
Australia ranks last in the OECD for business collaboration on innovation with higher education or government institutions --- at just 2.9 per cent of all product and/or process innovative firms in 2014-15. This compares poorly to the OECD average of 14.2 per cent and far below countries such as Austria, Finland and the United Kingdom, where one in four innovating businesses collaborate with either the research or government sectors. It is also arguably the weakest result across a range of similar measures, and reflects unfavourably on the ability of Australian businesses and research institutions to maximise the return on public investment in science and research. Noting the caveats around methodological and scope differences between the different data sources, the result nevertheless stands in stark contrast with both the high quality of Australia's research outputs and the solid rates of innovation across the business enterprise sector.
 OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2017: The digital transformation
 OECD Main Science and Technology Indicators (MSTI 2019/1)
 OECD Innovation Indicators 2017
 OECD Innovation Indicators 2017
 Clarivate InCites 2018
 Australian Bureau of Statistics Cat. No. 8158.0