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  • Executive summary
  • Introduction
  • Latest updates
  • COVID-19
  • COVID-19 impact on Australian businesses
  • Estimates from the IMF
  • Initial impact evaluation from the OECD
  • International trade outlook from the OECD
  • Australian business innovation from the National Australia Bank
  • Impact on business and recruitment from the National Skills Commission
  • 1 Business Innovation
    • 1.1 Innovation Activity
      • 1.1.1 Innovation activity overall
      • 1.1.2 Innovation activity by innovation stage
      • 1.1.3 Innovation activity by business size
      • 1.1.4 Innovation activity by industry
      • 1.1.5 Businesses that introduced innovations by innovation type
      • 1.1.6 Novelty of introduced innovations
      • 1.1.7 Barriers to business innovation
    • 1.2 Digital Innovation
      • 1.2.1 Business internet use
      • 1.2.2 Businesses receiving orders via the internet
      • 1.2.3 Business use of cloud computing
      • 1.2.4 Barriers to business use of paid cloud computing
      • 1.2.5 Management practices for business ICT use
      • 1.2.6 Digital technologies of major importance
      • 1.2.7 Factors impacting business ICT use
      • 1.2.8 ICT use in business processes
    • 1.3 Benefits of Innovation
      • 1.3.1 Benefits of introduced innovation
      • 1.3.2 Business performance by innovation status
      • 1.3.3 Employment, productivity and sales outcomes, by innovation status and collaboration
    • 1.4 International Comparison
      • 1.4.1 Global Innovation Index
      • 1.4.2 Global Innovation Index, Innovation input sub-index
      • 1.4.3 Global Innovation Index, Innovation output sub-index
      • 1.4.4 Innovation-active businesses that are R&D active
  • 2 Entrepreneurship
    • 2.1 Business Demography
      • 2.1.1 Businesses in operation by industry
      • 2.1.2 Business entries and exits by industry
      • 2.1.3 Survival of business entries by industry
      • 2.1.4 Churn rate by industry
    • 2.2 Startup Finance
      • 2.2.1 Value of venture capital investments
      • 2.2.2 Venture capital investment deals
    • 2.3 Business Growth
      • 2.3.1 High-growth firms measured by turnover
      • 2.3.2 High-growth firms measured by employment
      • 2.3.3 Businesses changing turnover range
      • 2.3.4 Businesses changing employment range
    • 2.4 International Comparison
      • 2.4.1 Total early-stage entrepreneurial activity (TEA)
      • 2.4.2 Innovative early-stage entrepreneurial activity
      • 2.4.3 Adults perceiving start-up opportunities for new businesses
      • 2.4.4 Adults prevented from starting a business by fear of failure
  • 3 Science and Research
    • 3.1 Business R&D
      • 3.1.1 Total business expenditure on R&D (BERD)
      • 3.1.2 Business expenditure on R&D (BERD) by industry
      • 3.1.3 Business expenditure on R&D (BERD) as a share of GDP
    • 3.2 Government R&D
      • 3.2.1 Government expenditure on R&D (GovERD) by type of activity
      • 3.2.2 Government expenditure on R&D (GovERD) by location of expenditure
      • 3.2.3 Government expenditure on R&D (GovERD) by level of government
      • 3.2.4 Australian Government investment in R&D
      • 3.2.5 Australian Government investment in R&D by sector
      • 3.2.6 Australian Government investment in R&D by major programs
      • 3.2.7 Civil government budget allocations for R&D (GBARD) by selected socio-economic objectives
    • 3.3 Higher Education R&D
      • 3.3.1 Higher education resources devoted to R&D (HERD) by type of activity
      • 3.3.2 Higher education resources devoted to R&D (HERD) by location
      • 3.3.3 Higher education resources devoted to R&D (HERD) by source of funds
    • 3.4 Research Output
      • 3.4.1 Share of world scientific publications
      • 3.4.2 Australian research fields with higher-than-world-average citation rates
      • 3.4.3 Scientific publications per $ million non-business R&D
      • 3.4.4 Scientific publications per million population
      • 3.4.5 Share of top one and top ten per cent highly-cited publications
    • 3.5 International Comparison
      • 3.5.1 Gross expenditure on R&D (GERD) as a share of GDP
      • 3.5.2 Gross expenditure on R&D (GERD) as a share of GDP by sector
      • 3.5.3 Business expenditure on R&D (BERD) performed in service industries
  • 4 Networks and Collaboration
    • 4.1 Innovation Connections
      • 4.1.1 Businesses collaborating for the purpose of innovation
      • 4.1.2 Businesses collaborating on innovation
      • 4.1.3 Businesses collaborating on R&D
      • 4.1.4 Businesses collaborating with publicly funded research organisations
      • 4.1.5 Active licences, options and assignments (LOAs) yielding income for research organisations
      • 4.1.6 Income from active licences, options and assignments (LOAs) obtained by research organisations
      • 4.1.7 Consultancies, contracts and research collaborations with research organisations
      • 4.1.8 Total gross value of consultancies, contracts and research collaborations with research organisations
    • 4.2 Absorptive Capacity
      • 4.2.1 Business human resources devoted to R&D
      • 4.2.2 Government human resources devoted to R&D
      • 4.2.3 Higher education human resources devoted to R&D
    • 4.3 Government Engagement
      • 4.3.1 Businesses receiving government financial assistance
      • 4.3.2 Innovation-active businesses receiving public support for innovation
      • 4.3.3 Innovation-active businesses with public procurement contracts
    • 4.4 International Comparison
      • 4.4.1 Business funding of higher education R&D (HERD)
      • 4.4.2 Businesses collaborating on innovation
      • 4.4.3 Businesses collaborating on innovation with higher education or government institutions
  • 5 Skills and Capability
    • 5.1 Education and Workforce
      • 5.1.1 Adults with school and non-school qualifications
      • 5.1.2 Adults with non-school qualifications by field of study
      • 5.1.3 Adults studying for a non-school qualification by field of study
      • 5.1.4 Apprentices and trainees by occupation
      • 5.1.5 Apprentices and trainees by employer industry
    • 5.2 Innovation Capability
      • 5.2.1 R&D personnel by sector
      • 5.2.2 Innovation-active businesses that operate in international markets
      • 5.2.3 Australian exports with a revealed comparative advantage (RCA) index above two
      • 5.2.4 Selected sources of ideas for innovation
    • 5.3 Intangible Capital
      • 5.3.1 Intangible capital investment
      • 5.3.2 Intangible capital stock
      • 5.3.3 Business investment in intangible capital
      • 5.3.4 Patent family filings involving Australian applicants
    • 5.4 International Comparison
      • 5.4.1 Total expenditure on educational institutions as a share of GDP
      • 5.4.2 Expenditure on tertiary education institutions as a share of GDP
      • 5.4.3 Adults attaining a tertiary qualification
      • 5.4.4 Adults attaining a vocational qualification
      • 5.4.5 Government effectiveness
      • 5.4.6 Regulatory quality
  • Citations
  • Glossary
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